Demand side flexibility coordination in office buildings: A framework and case study application
Abstract The transition from the traditional electrical power grid to the smart grid calls for a paradigm shift to accommodate bi-directional flow of power, information and the use of available useful flexibility between consumers, their buildings, and the grid. As buildings are considered a potential source of demand side flexibility it therefore becomes paramount that measures be put in place to ensure the useful building flexibility is delivered to the smart grid. However, this should be done without compromising the traditional functionality of buildings, which includes safety, thermal comfort and maintaining an acceptable indoor air quality. In this paper, through a systematic review of relevant literature, requirements for coordinating the interaction between building’s useful energy flexibility and the grid are outlined. Secondly, based on performance analysis and measurements from an averaged sized test case office building, the useful flexibility for grid services is quantified. Thirdly, an autonomous coordination framework for leveraging the useful demand side flexibility from buildings is proposed. Highlights Demand side flexibility performance for a case study office building is analysed. Analysis is with reference to duty cycling operations of installed cooling system and air supply fan. Practical considerations and boundary setting for demand side flexibility coordination are outlined. Utility based framework for demand side flexibility coordination is proposed.
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