Duplication of neuropeptide Y and peptide YY in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and their roles in food intake regulation
Abstract In vertebrates, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family peptides have been recognized as key players in food intake regulation. NPY centrally promotes feeding, while peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) mediate satiety. The teleost tetraploidization is well-known to generate duplicates of both NPY and PYY; however, the functional diversification between the duplicate genes, especially in the regulation of food intake, remains unknown. In this study, we identified the two duplicates of NPY and PYY in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). Both NPYa and NPYb were primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), but the mRNA levels of NPYb were markedly lower than those of NPYa . Hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPYa , but not NPYb , decreased after feeding and increased after 7-days of fasting. However, both NPYa and NPYb caused a significant increase in food intake after an intracranial injection of 50ng/g body weight dose. PYYb , one of the duplicates of PYY, had an extremely high expression in the foregut and midgut, whereas another form of duplicate PYYa showed only moderate expression in the CNS. Both hypothalamic PYYa and foregut PYYb mRNA expression increased after feeding and decreased after 7-days of fasting. Furthermore, the intracranial injection of PYYb decreased food intake, but PYYa had no significant effect. Our results suggested that although the mature peptides of NPYa and NPYb can both stimulate food intake, NPYa is the main endogenous functional NPY for feeding regulation. A functional division has been identified in the duplicates of PYY, which deems PYYb as a gut-derived anorexigenic peptide and PYYa as a CNS-specific PYY in Nile tilapia. Highlights NPYb had markedly lower expression than NPYa in the CNS. Feeding conditions affected hypothalamic NPYa expression, but not NPYb . PYYb mainly expressed in the gut, while PYYa only had low expression in the CNS. Hypothalamic PYYa and foregut PYYb expression were affected by feeding conditions. Synthetic NPYb stimulated food intake, while PYYb decreased food intake.
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