Concentrations of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor dusts from malls in China: Implications for human exposure
Abstract Levels and distribution of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) were measured in indoor dusts from malls in China. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs in dustfalls from a building material mall ranged from 6.0 to 361.4 μg g −1 and from 5.0 to 285.9 μg g −1 , respectively. Much heavier contamination was found in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dusts from a newly opened shopping mall, with SCCP concentrations of 114.7–707.0 μg g −1 and MCCP concentrations of 89.0–1082.9 μg g −1 . The C 13 - and C 14 -CPs were the dominant congeners, while the Cl 7 and Cl 8 groups were the major chlorine congeners in both kinds of dust samples. Significant correlation relationships ( p ≤ 0.05) were found between ∑SCCPs and ∑MCCPs in CACF dusts and dustfalls. Varied exposure pathways including dust ingestion and dermal permeation have been evaluated. The average daily exposure doses of SCCPs and MCCPs for the adult in CACF dusts and dustfalls were estimated to be 0.394 and 0.150 μg kg −1 day −1 , respectively. The toddler had higher exposure risks with 5.918 and 2.658 μg kg −1 day −1 in the shopping and building material malls, respectively. Dermal permeation was the predominated exposure pathway for the adult, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for the toddler due to hand-to-mouth contact. Highlights High concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs were detected in indoor dusts from malls. The C 13 - and C 14 -CPs were the dominant congeners in indoor dust samples. Toddlers have higher exposure risks of SCCPs and MCCPs than adults in the malls. Dermal permeation was the predominated exposure pathway for the adult. Contribution of dust ingestion to the toddler was around 77.0% in the worst case.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.150
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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