Residues of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpyrazine, a degradation product of some β-lactam antibiotics, in environmental water in Vietnam
Abstract Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a serious problem worldwide, caused in part by the excessive use and discharge of antibiotics into the environment. Ampicillin (ABPC) is a widely used antibiotic. However, this chemical rapidly decomposes in water containing divalent cations like Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , thus, detection of ABPC in environmental water is difficult. This study was carried out to evaluate the presence of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpyrazine (HPP), one of the degradation products of ABPC and β-lactam antibiotics with an ABPC substructure, in environmental water. An analytical method for HPP monitoring in environmental water was developed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The analyte was extracted from water samples and enriched using a solid-phase extraction cartridge. The quantification limit was 1 ng L −1 . The HPP recovery rates from spiked water samples of 25 and 125 ng L −1 were 84.1 and 86.1%, respectively. The method was then used to determine HPP residue levels in 98 environmental water samples from rivers, household ponds, and aquacultural ponds in Vietnam. HPP residues were detected in 60 samples. The HPP detection rates in rivers and household ponds were 42 and 79%, respectively. HPP was not detected in aquacultural ponds. HPP residue concentrations in the samples ranged from 1.3 to 413.3 ng L −1 . The residue levels in rivers flowing through city centres were higher than levels in other sampling locations. The findings of this study suggest that HPP is a promising marker for assessing the discharge of ABPC and β-lactam antibiotics with an ABPC substructure into the environment around sampling sites. Highlights A method to detect 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpyrazine was validated with LC/MS/MS. HPP residues were detected in 61% of samples, ranging from 1.3 to 413.3 ng L −1 . Residue levels in rivers in city centres were higher than those in other sites. No sample from aquacultural ponds was found to contain HPP residue. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.156
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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