Spatiotemporal change of phosphorous speciation and concentration in stormwater in the St. Lucie Estuary watershed, South Florida
Abstract Phosphorous (P) concentration in stormwater runoff varies at different spatial and temporal scales. Excessive P loading from agriculture system into the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE) contributed to water quality deterioration in southern Indian River Lagoon. This study examines the spatial and temporal shifts of different P forms in runoff and storm water under different land use, water management, and rainfall conditions. Storm water samplings were conducted monthly between April 2013 and December 2014 in typical farmland and along the waterway (Canal C-24) that connects lands to the SLE. Concentrations of different P forms and related water quality variables were measured. Approximately 89% of the collected water samples contained total P (TP) concentrations exceeding the total maximum daily load (TMDL) level (0.081 mg L −1 ). Concentrations of different P forms declined from agricultural field furrows to the canal and then increased from the upstream to the downstream in the canal where urban activities dominated land use. Total dissolved P (TDP) was the predominant form of TP, followed by PO 4 -P. Speciation and concentrations of P varied with sites and sampling times, but were significantly higher in the summer months (from June to September) than in the winter. Water pH explained ∼20% of TP variation. Spatiotemporal variations of P concentrations and compositions provide a data-based guide for development of best management practices (BMPs) to minimize P export from the SLE watershed. Highlights Total P concentrations in most of the surface water samples exceeded the critical level of total maximum daily load. Total dissolved P was the predominant form, followed by PO 4 -P. Speciation and concentrations of P in surface water samples varied spatiotemporally.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.020
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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