Chemical modeling of groundwater in the Banat Plain, southwestern Romania, with elevated As content and co-occurring species by combining diagrams and unsupervised multivariate statistical approaches
Abstract The study proposes a combined model based on diagrams (Gibbs, Piper, Stuyfzand Hydrogeochemical Classification System) and unsupervised statistical approaches (Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, Fuzzy Principal Component Analysis, Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering) to describe natural enrichment of inorganic arsenic and co-occurring species in groundwater in the Banat Plain, southwestern Romania. Speciation of inorganic As (arsenite, arsenate), ion concentrations (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 − , Cl − , F − , SO 4 2− , PO 4 3− , NO 3 − ), pH, redox potential, conductivity and total dissolved substances were performed. Classical diagrams provided the hydrochemical characterization, while statistical approaches were helpful to establish (i) the mechanism of naturally occurring of As and F − species and the anthropogenic one for NO 3 − , SO 4 2− , PO 4 3− and K + and (ii) classification of groundwater based on content of arsenic species. The HCO 3 − type of local groundwater and alkaline pH (8.31–8.49) were found to be responsible for the enrichment of arsenic species and occurrence of F − but by different paths. The PO 4 3- –AsO 4 3- ion exchange, water-rock interaction (silicates hydrolysis and desorption from clay) were associated to arsenate enrichment in the oxidizing aquifer. Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering was the strongest tool for the rapid simultaneous classification of groundwaters as a function of arsenic content and hydrogeochemical characteristics. The approach indicated the Na + –F - –pH cluster as marker for groundwater with naturally elevated As and highlighted which parameters need to be monitored. A chemical conceptual model illustrating the natural and anthropogenic paths and enrichment of As and co-occurring species in the local groundwater supported by mineralogical analysis of rocks was established. Highlights Groundwater naturally enriched with inorganic arsenic species. Classification of groundwater sources using Fuzzy Hierarchical Cross-Clustering. PO 4 3− –AsO 4 3− ion exchange and water-rocks interactions as sources of As. Na + –F − –pH cluster as marker for As naturally enriched groundwater. Co-occurrence of As species and F − under the influence of HCO 3 − and alkaline pH.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.130
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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