Practicability of monitoring soil Cd, Hg, and Pb pollution based on a geochemical survey in China
Abstract Repeated visiting, i.e., sampling and analysis at two or more temporal points, is one of the important ways of monitoring soil heavy metal contamination. However, with the concern about the cost, determination of the number of samples and the temporal interval, and their capability to detect a certain change is a key technical problem to be solved. This depends on the spatial variation of the parameters in the monitoring units. The “National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey” (NMPRGS) project in China, acquired the spatial distribution of heavy metals using a high density sampling method in the most arable regions in China. Based on soil Cd, Hg, and Pb data and taking administrative regions as the monitoring units, the number of samples and temporal intervals that may be used for monitoring soil heavy metal contamination were determined. It was found that there is a large variety of spatial variation of the elements in each NMPRGS region. This results in the difficulty in the determination of the minimum detectable changes (MDC), the number of samples, and temporal intervals for revisiting. This paper recommends a suitable set of the number of samples ( n r ) for each region under the balance of cost, practicability, and monitoring precision. Under n r , MDC values are acceptable for all the regions, and the minimum temporal intervals are practical with the range of 3.3–13.3 years. Highlights Spatial variation should be considered in soil heavy metal contamination monitoring. The number of samples is the balance of cost, practicability, and monitoring precision. A suitable set of sample numbers and temporal intervals was recommended. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.082
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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