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Chemosphere v.172, 2017년, pp.234 - 241   SCI SCIE SCOPUS
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Occurrence, fate and environmental risk of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in the Langat and Selangor River basins, Malaysia

Sakai, Nobumitsu (Division of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan ); Shirasaka, Junichi (Division of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan ); Matsui, Yasuto (Division of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan ); Ramli, Mohd Redzuan (Shimadzu-UMMC Centre of Xenobiotic Studies, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia ); Yoshida, Kousuke (Lion Corporation, 100 Tajima, Odawara-shi, Kanagawa 256-0811, Japan ); Ali Mohd, Mustafa (Shimadzu-UMMC Centre of Xenobiotic Studies, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia ); Yoneda, Minoru (Division of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan );
  • 초록  

    Abstract Five homologs (C 10 -C 14 ) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were quantitated in surface water collected in the Langat and Selangor River basins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to spatially analyze the occurrence of LAS in both river basins, and the LAS contamination associated with the population was elucidated by spatial analysis at a sub-basin level. The LAS concentrations in the dissolved phase ( 11 μm) were analyzed to elucidate the environmental fate of LAS in the study area. The environmental risks of the observed LAS concentration were assessed based on predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) normalized by a quantitative structure–activity relationship model. The LAS contamination mainly occurred from a few populated sub-basins, and it was correlated with the population density and ammonia nitrogen. The dissolved phase was less than 20% in high contamination sites (>1000 μg/L), whereas it was more than 60% in less contaminated sites ( 11 μm) that settled in a few hours. The observed LAS concentrations exceeded the normalized PNEC at 3 sites, and environmental risk areas and susceptible areas to the LAS contamination were spatially identified based on their catchment areas. Highlights LAS contamination was correlated with population density and ammonia nitrogen. Environmental fate was subject to suspended solids rather than biodegradation. Longer alkyl chain lengths were more absorbed to large suspended solids (>11 μm). LAS concentration at 3 sub-basins was over predicted no effect concentrations. Environmental risk areas and susceptible areas due to LAS were spatially identified. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]


  • 주제어

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate .   Langat and Selangor River basins .   LC-MS/MS .   GIS .   Spatial analysis and source profiling .   Environmental fate and risk assessment.  

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