Current ambient concentrations of ozone in Panama modulate the leaf chemistry of the tropical tree Ficus insipida
Abstract Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) is a major air pollutant and greenhouse gas, affecting carbon dynamics, ecological interactions, and agricultural productivity across continents and biomes. Elevated [O 3 ] has been documented in tropical evergreen forests, the epicenters of terrestrial primary productivity and plant-consumer interactions. However, the effects of O 3 on vegetation have not previously been studied in these forests. In this study, we quantified ambient O 3 in a region shared by forests and urban/commercial zones in Panama and found levels two to three times greater than in remote tropical sites. We examined the effects of these ambient O 3 levels on the growth and chemistry of seedlings of Ficus insipida , a regionally widespread tree with high stomatal conductance, using open-top chambers supplied with ozone-free or ambient air. We evaluated the differences across treatments in biomass and, using UPLC-MS-MS, leaf secondary metabolites and membrane lipids. Mean [O 3 ] in ambient air was below the levels that induce chronic stress in temperate broadleaved trees, and biomass did not differ across treatments. However, leaf secondary metabolites – including phenolics and a terpenoid – were significantly downregulated in the ambient air treatment. Membrane lipids were present at lower concentrations in older leaves grown in ambient air, suggesting accelerated senescence. Thus, in a tree species with high O 3 uptake via high stomatal conductance, current ambient [O 3 ] in Panamanian forests are sufficient to induce chronic effects on leaf chemistry. Highlights Elevated [O 3 ] was recorded at three forests near NO x emission hotspots in Panama. This [O 3 ] affected the physiology of the widespread native tree Ficus insipida. The effects of O 3 on F.?insipida included a decrease in leaf chemical defenses. O 3 also led to decreased lipid content in mature leaves. AOT was below critical levels for temperate trees, but F.?insipida has high g s_max.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.109
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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