Proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of acne vulgaris microcystic and papular lesions: Insights in the understanding of its pathophysiology
Abstract Background The pathogenesis of acne vulgaris involves several phases including androgen-dependent hyper-seborrhea, colonization by Propionibacterium acnes , and inflammation. Recent investigations have shown that in fact P. acnes provokes the activation of the inflammasome present in macrophages and dendritic cells. This signaling pathway leads to excessive production of interleukin IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine. Nevertheless, these well-studied phenomena in acne fail to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of different lesions. Methods We investigate response pathways for specific acne lesions such as microcysts and papules using shot-gun proteomic followed by systemic biology and transcriptomic approaches. Results Results show that most of the proteins identified as differentially expressed between the normal and acne tissue biopsies associated with the immune system response were identified as highly or exclusively expressed in the papule biopsies. They were also expressed in microcysts, but in lower amounts compared to those in papules. These results are supported by the identification of CAMP factor protein produced by P. acnes in microcysts, indicating its enhanced proliferation in this type of lesion Conclusions As CAMP factor protein was not detected in papule biopsies, we can see a clear delineation in the stages of progression of acne pathogenesis, which begins with a hyphenated inflammatory response in the papule stage, followed by imbalance of lipid production, which in turn triggers the enhanced proliferation of P. acnes . General significance We demonstrate that expression inflammation varies across the two types of lesions, suggesting different pathways enhanced as a function of the progression of P. acnes . Highlights Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches of acne vulgaris microcystic and papular lesions Systemic biology studies of metabolic and immune system processes in microcyst and papule Antimicrobial peptides from the acne vulgaris and from microcyst and papule
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