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IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems v.10 no.6, 2016년, pp.1143 - 1151   SCIE
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A 5 nW Quasi-Linear CMOS Hot-Electron Injector for Self-Powered Monitoring of Biomechanical Strain Variations

Zhou, Liang (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA ); Abraham, Adam C. ( Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA ); Tang, Simon Y. ( Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA ); Chakrabartty, Shantanu ( );
  • 초록  

    Piezoelectricity-driven hot-electron injectors (p-HEI) are used for self-powered monitoring of mechanical activity in biomechanical implants and structures. Previously reported p-HEI devices operate by harvesting energy from a piezoelectric transducer to generate current and voltage references which are then used for initiating and controlling the process of hot-electron injection. As a result, the minimum energy required to activate the device is limited by the power requirements of the reference circuits. In this paper we present a p-HEI device that operates by directly exploiting the self-limiting capability of an energy transducer when driving the process of hot-electron injection in a pMOS floating-gate transistor. As a result, the p-HEI device can activate itself at input power levels less than 5 nW. Using a prototype fabricated in a 0.5- $\mu\text{m}$ bulk CMOS process we validate the functionality of the proposed injector and show that for a fixed input power, its dynamics is quasi-linear with respect to time. The paper also presents measurement results using a cadaver phantom where the fabricated p-HEI device has been integrated with a piezoelectric transducer and is used for self-powered monitoring of mechanical activity.


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