Underdetermined DOA Estimation Under the Compressive Sensing Framework: A Review
Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation from the perspective of sparse signal representation has attracted tremendous attention in past years, where the underlying spatial sparsity reconstruction problem is linked to the compressive sensing (CS) framework. Although this is an area with ongoing intensive research and new methods and results are reported regularly, it is time to have a review about the basic approaches and methods for CS-based DOA estimation, in particular for the underdetermined case. We start from the basic time-domain CS-based formulation for narrowband arrays and then move to the case for recently developed methods for sparse arrays based on the co-array concept. After introducing two specifically designed structures (the two-level nested array and the co-prime array) for optimizing the virtual sensors corresponding to the difference co-array, this CS-based DOA estimation approach is extended to the wideband case by employing the group sparsity concept, where a much larger physical aperture can be achieved by allowing a larger unit inter-element spacing and therefore leading to further improved performance. Finally, a specifically designed uniform linear array structure with associated CS-based underdetermined DOA estimation is presented to exploit the difference co-array concept in the spatio-spectral domain, leading to a significant increase in degrees of freedom. Representative simulation results for typical narrowband and wideband scenarios are provided to demonstrate their performance.
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