Study on Operation of a Surface-Wave Oscillator Around the
$\pi$ -Point Region
We numerically and experimentally studied the operation of a W-band (75–110 GHz) surface-wave oscillator driven by the electron beam energy of less than 100 keV. Two numerical methods of the real wavenumber analysis and the saddle point analysis are studied to examine the operation of the oscillator. We analyzed the Cherenkov instability for the interaction of the space charge modes and the structure modes EH 01 . We showed that the instabilities are of absolute instabilities when the oscillator operates around the $\pi $ -point region. In the experiment, radiations due to the absolute instability are detected around the $\pi $ -point region when the length of the slow-wave structure (SWS) is short enough. On the other hand, the absolute instability generates no meaningful radiation in the $\pi $ -point region for the long length of SWS.