A Bias-Bounded Digital True Random Number Generator Architecture
Bias phenomenon has been a ubiquitous problem in the designs of digital True Random Number Generator (TRNG). Circuit performance can be improved with some auxiliary modules such as analog circuits and post-processing components, which usually involve the compromising of cost, compatibility, throughput, and security as well. In some cases only sub-optimal designs can be achieved. In this paper, by utilizing the diverse timing characteristics of different initial states, a staged-running Self-timed Ring (STR) architecture, which is able to suppress the degree of bias, is proposed. The proposed architecture is compared with some conventional free-running architectures using a Xilinx Zynq-7000 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform for a throughput of 100 Mbps. With the increase of the ring size, the bias degree of the newly proposed structure is within a negligible level of less than 1%; whereas those of the conventional architectures can exceed 10%. Statistical tests were also conducted and the results show that the quality of randomness rises as the complexity in initial-state mapping and the ring nodes of the proposed structure increases. The test passes the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) test suite with high p-values.