Miniaturizing Floating Traps to Increase RF Safety of Magnetic-Resonance-Guided Percutaneous Procedures
Objective : MRI in the area of cardiovascular catheter-based interventional procedures is an active field. A common intervention—revascularization of chronic total occlusions, requires a conductive guidewire for revascularization. The mechanical properties of guidewires are paramount to the successful execution of such procedures. Furthermore to benefit from MRI techniques, additional conductors are required to transmit signal from the tip of a catheter. Long thin conductors in MRI systems pose a safety risk in the form of RF heating due to induced RF currents on the conductors. Unfortunately many existing techniques to mitigate this risk require physical modification of the conductors, inevitably resulting in detrimental mechanical tradeoffs in the guidewire. This manuscript proposes a novel application and miniaturization of an existing device, the floating RF trap. The RF trap couples strongly to any thin conductor passing through the trap lumen inducing significant series impedance. This results in reduction of induced RF currents, and thus, heating. Methods and Results : This study shows theoretical and experimental analysis of induced impedance as well as theoretical reduction in heating due to various distributions of traps along the length of a catheter. Results of measuring induced current and heating in phantom experiments are also presented. Through comparison with commercial simulation packages and results of phantom experiments, it is shown that miniaturized RF traps can be modeled accurately, including their induced series impedance and effect on induced RF current. Conclusion and Significance : It was demonstrated that floating RF traps present a feasible method to mitigate RF heating while maintaining important mechanical properties of guidewires.
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