Reliability Assessment of Protective Relays in Harmonic-Polluted Power Systems
Proliferation of distributed generations (DGs) and power-electronics-based loads is bringing about more harmonic-polluted power signals. While some failures may occur as a consequence of nonsinusoidal current or voltage waveforms, existing reliability models of protection relays have not taken the harmonic-related failures into consideration. This paper develops a comprehensive Markov reliability model to categorize the possible functional states of a component, say a transmission line, protected by a relay, operating in a harmonic-polluted environment. In order to make the proposed model practically tractable, it is further simplified in two ways, through merging the states of the same consequence. The first simplified model focuses on the power component reliability assessment; while the other is built for reliability analysis of a protection system. Calculation of transition rates and how the resultant model is mathematically evaluated are then discussed. Numerical analyses and outcomes are based on the real-world data taken from Canadian substations. Accordingly, the results and conclusions drawn in this paper would be interesting to both academia and industry. Moreover, the proposed reliability assessment methodology is readily applicable in scrutinizing the impacts of harmonic pollution on the protection devices of other power components.