Traveling-Wave-Based Fault-Location Algorithm for Hybrid Multiterminal Circuits
This paper presents a traveling-wave-based fault-location algorithm for hybrid multiterminal transmission systems that consist of one onshore overhead lines and multiple offshore submarine cables. Such hybrid transmission systems are common for interconnection of offshore wind farms to the main grid. The input to the algorithm is synchronized transient voltage measurements from all of the receiving ends. These measurements are obtained by optical voltage transducers equipped with global positioning system receivers for time synchronization. The discrete wavelet transformation is utilized to decompose the mode-1 voltages at the receiving ends. The first wave arrival times are then obtained by observing the squares of the wavelet transformation coefficient (WTC $^2$ s). The transient simulations and the postfault analysis are carried out using EMTP-RV and MATLAB Wavelet Toolbox, respectively. The accuracy, limitations, and capabilities of the proposed algorithm are presented and discussed for different fault conditions.