Effective Real-Time Operation and Protection Scheme of Microgrids Using Distributed Dynamic State Estimation
This paper proposes an effective scheme for real-time operation and protection of microgrids based on the distributed dynamic state estimation (DDSE) that is applied to a single renewable distributed energy resource (DER) or other components. First, the DDSE can be used for setting-less component protection that applies dynamic state estimation on a component under protection with real-time measurements and dynamic models of the component. Based on the results, the well-known chi-square test yields the confidence level that quantifies the goodness of fit of models to measurements, indicating the health status of the component. With this approach, renewable DERs in microgrids can be protected on an autonomous and adaptive basis. Meanwhile, the estimated state variables of each component are converted to phasor data with time tags, and then collected to the distributed energy resources management (DERMS) of microgrids. These aggregated phasor data that are once filtered by the DDSE are input to the static state estimation in the DERMS along with unfiltered data sent from conventional meters, relays, and digital fault recorders, ultimately generating real-time operating conditions of microgrids. This paper also provides numerical simulations for comparing the DDSE-based approach with the conventional centralized state estimation in terms of data accuracy and computational speeds.