Robust Biomechanical Model-Based 3-D Indoor Localization and Tracking Method Using UWB and IMU
This paper proposes a robust sensor fusion algorithm to accurately track the spatial location and motion of a human under various dynamic activities, such as walking, running, and jumping. The position accuracy of the indoor wireless positioning systems frequently suffers from non-line-of-sight and multipath effects, resulting in heavy-tailed outliers and signal outages. We address this problem by integrating the estimates from an ultra-wideband (UWB) system and inertial measurement units, but also taking advantage of the estimated velocity and height obtained from an aiding lower body biomechanical model. The proposed method is a cascaded Kalman filter-based algorithm where the orientation filter is cascaded with the robust position/velocity filter. The outliers are detected for individual measurements using the normalized innovation squared, where the measurement noise covariance is softly scaled to reduce its weight. The positioning accuracy is further improved with the Rauch–Tung–Striebel smoother. The proposed algorithm was validated against an optical motion tracking system for both slow (walking) and dynamic (running and jumping) activities performed in laboratory experiments. The results show that the proposed algorithm can maintain high accuracy for tracking the location of a subject in the presence of the outliers and UWB signal outages with a combined 3-D positioning error of less than 13 cm.