A Runtime Framework for Robust Application Scheduling With Adaptive Parallelism in the Dark-Silicon Era
With deeper technology scaling accompanied by a worsening power wall, an increasing proportion of chip area on a chip multiprocessor (CMP) is expected to be occupied by dark silicon. At the same time, design challenges due to process variations and soft errors in integrated circuits are projected to become even more severe. It is well known that spatial variations in process parameters introduce significant unpredictability in the performance and power profiles of CMP cores. By mapping applications onto the best set of cores, process variations can potentially be used to our advantage in the dark-silicon era. In addition, the probability of occurrence of soft errors during application execution has been found to be strongly related to the supply voltage and operating frequency values, thus necessitating reliability awareness within runtime voltage scaling schemes in contemporary CMPs. In this paper, we present a novel framework that leverages the knowledge of variations on the chip to perform runtime application mapping and dynamic voltage scaling to optimize system performance and energy, while satisfying dark-silicon power constraints of the chip as well as application-specific performance and reliability constraints. Our experimental results show average savings of 10%–71% in application service times and 13%–38% in energy consumption, compared with prior work.