Cross‐sectional associations of impaired glucose metabolism measures with bleeding on probing and periodontitis
Abstract Aim This study assessed the associations of pre‐diabetes and insulin resistance with bleeding on probing (BOP) and periodontitis among adults. Materials and methods We included 1191 Hispanic adults aged 40–65 years, free of diabetes, enrolled in San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study. Pre‐diabetes was defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or impaired glycated haemoglobin. Impaired one‐hour plasma glucose (1hPG) was defined as levels >155 mg/dl. Insulin resistance was defined using the study population‐specific 75th percentile (HOMA‐IR ≥ 3.13). High BOP was defined as percentage of teeth with bleeding ≥30%. Periodontitis was defined according to the CDC/AAP definition. Results After multivariable adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, obesity, HDL‐C, and plaque index, pre‐diabetes with and without 1hPG, IFG, impaired 1hPG, IGT, and HOMA‐IR were significantly associated with high BOP; pre‐diabetes, IFG, and impaired 1hPG were significantly associated with severe periodontitis. Most of these associations remained significant when the analyses were restricted to non‐smokers. Conclusions This study suggests associations between pre‐diabetes and insulin resistance with BOP and periodontitis. Given the high prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and periodontitis, the assessment of the temporal sequence of these associations is of utmost importance.
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