The influence of adherent cell morphology on hydrodynamic recruitment of leukocytes
Abstract Innate immunity is characterized by the coordinated activity of multiple leukocytes mobilizing at or near the site of tissue injury. Slow rolling and/or adherent leukocytes have been shown to hydrodynamically recruit free-stream leukocytes to a model of inflamed tissue. In this paper, we numerically investigate the hydrodynamic recruitment of free-stream leukocytes due to the presence of a nearby adherent, deformed leukocyte by using a computational model developed from first principles to simulate these types of interactions. For free-stream cells at least one diameter above the surface and subsequently involved in a glancing (out-of-plane) collision with one or more adherent cell, the simulation indicated that the free-stream cell was driven closer to the surface as a function of increasing glancing distance. Further, with increasing deformation of the adherent cell a similar effect was observed beginning at smaller glancing offsets. The influence of binary interactions on the trajectories of free-stream cells that were less than one diameter above the surface was also examined. For fixed glancing distance, increased adherent cell deformation led to enhanced recruiting effectiveness which was quantified by determining the time needed for the free-stream cell to enter the reactive zone; that is, a membrane separation distance such that receptor-ligand binding was possible. This effectiveness was only moderately influenced by variations in shear rate and cell buoyancy. Finally, for large glancing offset the domain of influence of the adherent cell diminished and the trajectory of the free-stream cell was unaffected by the adherent cell, with regard to hydrodynamic recruitment. Highlights Collision between freestream and adherent cell can enhance hydrodynamic recruitment. Highly deformed adherent cell more effective recruiter than moderate deformed cell. Collisions with multiple adherent cells can drive freestream cell towards surface. Domain of influence of adherent cell is negligible at large glancing distances.
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