A novel mitochondria-targeted two-photon fluorescent probe for dynamic and reversible detection of the redox cycles between peroxynitrite and glutathione
Abstract Redox homeostasis is important for maintenance of normal physiological functions within cells. Redox state of cells is primarily a consequence of precise balance between levels of reducing equivalents and reactive oxygen species. Redox homeostasis between peroxynitrite (ONOO − ) and glutathione (GSH) is closely associated with physiological and pathological processes, such as prolonged relaxation in vascular tissues and smooth muscle preparations, attenuation of hepatic necrosis, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. We report a two-photon fluorescent probe (TP-Se) based on water-soluble carbazole-based compound, which integrates with organic selenium, to monitor changes in ONOO − /GSH levels in cells. This probe can reversibly respond to ONOO − and GSH and exhibits high selectivity, sensitivity, and mitochondrial targeting. The probe was successfully applied to visualize changes in redox cycles during ONOO − outbreak and antioxidant GSH repair in cells. The probe will lead to significant development on redox events involved in cellular redox regulation. Highlights We report a two-photon fluorescent probe (TP-Se) for optical imaging. TP-Se can monitor reversibly changes in ONOO − /GSH levels in mitochondria. TP-Se will lead to significant development on redox events in cellular redox regulation. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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