The structure-activity relationship of ginsenosides on hypoxia-reoxygenation induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes
Abstract Ginsenosides have been studied extensively in recent years due to their therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases. While most studies examined the different ginsenosides individually, few studies compare the therapeutic effects among the different types. This study examined how effective protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, Rh1, and Rg2 of the ginsenoside family are in protecting H9c2 cardiomyocytes from damage caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation. In the current study, a model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by oxygen deprivation via a hypoxia chamber followed by reoxygenation. Our data show that structures similar to that of protopanaxadiol, which lacked the hydroxide group at C6, were more effective in lowering apoptosis than structures similar to protopanaxatriol with a hydroxide group at C6. As the compounds increased in size and complexity, the cardioprotective effects diminished. In addition, the S enantiomer proved to be more effective in cardioprotection than the R enantiomer. Furthermore, the immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that ginsenosides activate AMPK but suppress JNK signaling pathways during hypoxia/reoxygenation. Thus, ginsenosides treatment attenuated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis via modulating cardioprotective AMPK and inflammation-related JNK signaling pathways. Highlights Ginsenosides have cardioprotective effects on hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced damage. There is a structure-activity relationship regarding ginsenosides' inhibition of apoptosis. AMPK could be an important mediator for ginsenosides' cardioprotection against hypoxic injury.
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