Interactive effects of microcystin and ammonia on the reproductive performance and phenotypic traits of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus
Abstract Elevated microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and ammonia (NH 3 -N) concentrations co-occur during the degradation of Microcystis blooms, and are toxic to aquatic organisms. The freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus , was exposed to mixtures of MC-LR (0, 10, 30, and 100μgL −1 ) and NH 3 -N (0, 270, and 540μgL −1 ) to assess the combined effects of the two toxicants on reproductive performance and phenotype traits. Single solutions of MC-LR (100μgL −1 ) and NH 3 -N (540μgL −1 ) had negative effects on rotifer reproductive timing and fecundity. Pre- and post-reproductive periods fluctuated with MC-LR and NH 3 -N concentrations, while reproductive period and total offspring per female were reduced in mixtures of MC-LR and NH 3 -N ( p p 3 -N had negative effects on swimming speed and body length but positively stimulated posterolateral spine development ( p 3 -N had synergetic interactive effects on pre-reproductive period, reproductive period, total offspring per female, grazing rate, swimming speed, and body length ( p p > 0.05). These results indicate that MC-LR and NH 3 -N act synergistically and antagonistically in causing toxicity to B. calyciflorus regarding reproductive performance and the formation of defensive phenotypes. Highlights MC-LR combined with NH 3 -N was detrimental to Brachionus calyciflorus reproduction. Rotifer feeding and swimming behaviors were inhibited under MC-LR and NH 3 -N stress. Rotifer defensive phenotypes were induced in response to MC-LR and NH 3 -N. MC-LR and NH 3 -N act synergistically and antagonistically to cause toxicity.
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