A short-term swimming speed alteration test with nauplii of Artemia franciscana
Abstract The presence of toxicant needs to be assessed within short time in order to effectively protect the aquatic environment from serious threat. Based on the observation that at high temperatures aquatic organisms become more vulnerable to stressors than those maintained at room temperature, a new test was developed. The proposed bioassay consisted in the evaluation of the swimming speed alteration (SSA) of nauplii of Artemia franciscana incubated at 39°C (± 1) for 6h, using a Swimming Behavior Recorder system (SBR). A comparative ecotoxicological study between the 6h SSA test and the 24h mortality test was carried out in order to validate the new method in terms of sensitivity by means of EC 50 values. The bioassay was applied to screen different toxicants: K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , Cu(SO 4 ) 2 , NaClO, SDS and Sertraline hydrochloride. The EC 50s calculated for the short-term SSA test and those of the mortality test showed comparable values. For all toxicants, the 6h SSA test was proved to be as sensitive as the 24h mortality test. The method developed in this study is the first temperature-based toxicity test with nauplii of Artemia franciscana and it represents an attractive assay in ecotoxicology because of its convenience in terms of time and costs, feasibility and sensitivity. Highlights The temperature of incubation significantly affected the swimming speed of Artemia franciscana nauplii. A short-term temperature based test was developed. The 6h SSA test provided a comparable response to the 24h mortality test.
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