Lipid metabolism and pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance of Halamphora oceanica from the Gulf of Mexico exposed to water accommodated fraction of Maya crude oil
Abstract Diatoms play key roles in primary production and carbon fixation at a global scale and in some cases these species live on marine ecosystems impacted by crude oil (CO) spills. Halamphora oceanica , a new diatom species from the Southwest of the Gulf of Mexico was isolated and cultured in the laboratory and was exposed to water accommodated fraction (WAF) of different Maya CO loads at 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10g/L by 96h. A battery of biomarkers involved in oxidative stress (O 2 •, H 2 O 2 , TBARS, ROOH, RC=O, SOD, CAT, GPx), biotransformation and conjugation (total CYP450 activity and GST) moreover fatty acid (FA) metabolism (FA levels, fatty-acid synthase and acyl-CoA oxidase) were measured. Obtained results suggest that increases of PAHs in the medium (below to EC 50 ) acts as external forces able to turn-on regulatory mechanisms on H. oceanica involved in both, on the PAHs uptake and changing its aerobic metabolism to anaerobic metabolism. However, the growth of this microalgae species evaluated as chlorophyll "a" and pheophytin levels increased as the WAF concentration indicating that PAHs and other hydrosoluble hydrocarbons were used as carbon and energy sources by unidentified enzymes not evaluated in the current study. Our hypothesis was also corroborated by IBRv2. In the current study, we suppose the change from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism as a strategy for Halamphora oceanica survival exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Highlights PAHs in the medium inversely regulate PAHs bioaccumulation on the biomass. Diminution of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism biomarkers were noted. Probably a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism allows these diminutions.
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