Surfactant modified zeolite as amphiphilic and dual-electronic adsorbent for removal of cationic and oxyanionic metal ions and organic compounds
Abstract A hydrophilic Y zeolite was primarily treated with sodium hydroxide to enhance its cation exchange capacity (Na-zeolite). The organo-zeolite (Na-H-zeolite) was prepared by a modification process of the external surface of Na-zeolite with a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium; HDTMA). Three adsorbents (i.e., pristine zeolite, Na-zeolite, and Na-H-zeolite) were characterized with nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cation exchange capacities, and zeta potential. Results demonstrated that HDTMA can be adsorbed on the surface of Na-zeolite to form patchy bilayers. The adsorption capacity of several hazardous pollutants (i.e., Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 2 O 7 2- , propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, and phenol) onto Na-H-zeolite was investigated in a single system and multiple-components. Adsorption isotherm was measured to further understand the effects of the modification process on the adsorption behaviors of Na-H-zeolite. Adsorption performances indicated that Na-H-zeolite can simultaneously adsorb the metal cations (on the surface not covered by HDTMA), oxyanions (on the surface covered by HDTMA). Na-H-zeolite also exhibited both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces to uptake organic compounds with various water solubilities (from 55 to 75,000mg/L). It was experimentally concluded that Na-H-zeolite is a potential dual-electronic and amphiphilic adsorbent for efficiently removing a wide range of potentially toxic pollutants from aquatic environments. Highlights Hydrophilic zeolite treated with NaOH (Na-zeolite) to enhance cation exchange capacity. Na-zeolite modified with HDTMA (Na-H-zeolite) to prepare amphiphilic and dual-electronic adsorbent. Na-H-zeolite applied to adsorb cationic and oxyanionic metal ions and organic compounds. Adsorption isotherms conducted in single solution and multiple-components of adsorbate. Maximum adsorption capacity of Na-H-zeolite: 67mg/g (Pb 2+ ), 26mg/g (Cu 2+ ), 23mg/g (Ni 2+ ), 40mg/g (Cr 2 O 7 2- ), 41mg/g (phenol). Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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