Evaluation of the mobility and pollution index of selected essential/toxic metals in paddy soil by sequential extraction method
Abstract Comparative distribution and mobility of selected essential and toxic metals in the paddy soil from district Sargodha, Pakistan was evaluated by the modified Community Bureau of Reference (mBCR) sequential extraction procedure. Most of the soil samples showed slightly alkaline nature while the soil texture was predominantly silty loam in nature. The metal contents were quantified in the exchangeable, reducible, oxidisable and residual fractions of the soil by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the metal data were subjected to the statistical analyses in order to evaluate the mutual relationships among the metals in each fraction. Among the metals, Ca, Sr and Mn were found to be more mobile in the soil. A number of significant correlations between different metal pairs were noted in various fractions. Contamination factor, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor revealed extremely severe enrichment/contamination for Cd; moderate to significant enrichment/contamination for Ni, Zn, Co and Pb while Cr, Sr, Cu and Mn revealed minimal to moderate contamination and accumulation in the soil. Multivariate cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of the metals in various fractions. Highlights Availability and pollution index of selected metals in paddy soil was evaluated. Relatively higher mobility was noted for Ca, Sr and Mn in the soil. Significant contamination and enrichment was found for Cd, Ni, Zn, Co and Pb. Cluster analysis showed anthropogenic input of the metals in various fractions. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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