Tolerance and bioaccumulation of Cd and Cu in Sesuvium portulacastrum
Abstract In order to investigate the tolerance and bioaccumulation of Cd and Cu in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum , seedlings were hydroponically cultured for 30 days using the modified 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution with different concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20mgL −1 ) and Cu (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10mgL −1 ). Afterwards, the seedling height, leaf area, biomass, and mineral element contents (Fe, Mg, Cu, and Zn) in the roots, stems and leaves were measured, and the tolerance index, bioconcentration factor (BCF), transportation index, and removal rate were calculated. The effects of salinity (0‰–30‰) on the growth and bioaccumulation ability of S. portulacastrum under combined Cu/Cd (5mgL −1 ) exposure were also determined. The results showed that, with an increasing Cd concentration, the biomass and seedling height of S. portulacastrum initially increased and then decreased. The highest leaf biomass and seedlings height was observed in the 10mgL −1 and 5mgL −1 Cd treatment group, respectively. Salinity did not affect the biomass of S. portulacastrum but decreased Cd concentration in roots and aboveground tissues and Cu concentration in roots of S. portulacastrum. Cu treatment significantly facilitated the absorption of Mg, Cu, and Zn in roots. With an increasing Cu concentration, the Mg and Fe contents increased in the leaves of S. portulacastrum . In comparison to the above-ground portions, the root showed a higher bioaccumulation ability of Cd and Cu, with the BCF of 341.5 and 211.9, respectively. The BCF and translocation factor (TF) values indicated that S. portulacastrum was not a hyperaccumulator for Cd and Cu, but could be used as a phytostablization plant in heavy metal contaminated coastal environments. Highlights Tolerance and bioaccumulation of Cd and Cu were investigated in Sesuvium portulacastrum . Cd (>20mgL −1 ) and Cu (>5mgL −1 ) decreased growth rates of S. portulacastrum . S. portulacastrum showed high BCF values but low TF values for Cd and Cu. Salinity affected the Cd and Cu bioaccumulation but not the biomass of S. portulacastrum . S. portulacastrum can be used as phytostablization for Cd and Cu in coastal environments.
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