Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Lemna minor by exogenous salicylic acid
Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed ( L . minor ) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl 2 , 10μM CdCl 2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity. Chlorosis-associated symptoms, the reduction in chlorophyll content, and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species induced by Cd exposure were largely reversed by SA. SA significantly decreased the toxic effects of Cd on the activities of the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the fronds of L . minor . Furthermore, SA reversed the detrimental effects of Cd on total ascorbate, glutathione, the ascorbic acid/oxidized dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide ratios, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde concentration, lipoxygenase activity, and the accumulation of proline. SA induced the up-regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) and attenuated the adverse effects of Cd on cell viability. These results suggest that SA confers tolerance to Cd stress in L . minor through different mechanisms. Highlights SA reduces Cd uptake and maintains ionic homeostasis in L . minor subjected to Cd. SA induces endogenous SA accumulation and improves PAL activity against Cd stress. SA can stimulate biosynthesis of Hsp70 by Western blotting method. SA activates total or isoenzymes antioxidant enzymes upon Cd exposure. SA re-establishes glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis in L . minor .
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