A critical review on speciation, mobilization and toxicity of lead in soil-microbe-plant system and bioremediation strategies
Abstract Lead accumulation in soils is of serious concern in agricultural production due to the harmful effects on soil microflora, crop growth and food safety. In soil, speciation of lead greatly affects its bioavailability and thus its toxicity on plants and microbes. Many plants and bacteria have evolved to develop detoxification mechanisms to counter the toxic effect of lead. Factors influencing the lead speciation include soil pH, organic matter, presence of various amendments, clay minerals and presence of organic colloids and iron oxides. Unlike, other metals little is known about the speciation and mobility of lead in soil. This review focuses on the speciation of lead in soil, its mobility, toxicity, uptake and detoxification mechanisms in plants and bacteria and bioremediation strategies for remediation of lead contaminated repositories. Highlights Lead is one of the major inorganic persistent global pollutant. Lead forms stable complexes with soil components. Lead had no biological function and induces toxic effects on soil microflora and plants. Plants and microbes have various mechanisms in response to lead which can be applied for bioremediation of various lead contaminated sites.
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