A comparative study to evaluate natural attenuation, mycoaugmentation, phytoremediation, and microbial-assisted phytoremediation strategies for the bioremediation of an aged PAH-polluted soil
Abstract Biological treatments are considered an environmentally option to clean-up polluted soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A pot experiment was conducted to comparatively evaluate four different strategies, including natural attenuation (NA), mycoaugmentation (M) by using Crucibulum leave , phytoremediation (P) using maize plants, and microbial-assisted phytoremediation (MAP) for the bioremediation of an aged PAH-polluted soil at 180 days. The P treatment had higher affinity degrading 2–3 and 4 ring compounds than NA and M treatments, respectively. However, M and P treatments were more efficient in regards to naphthalene, indeno[ l ,2,3- c , d ]pyrene and benzo[ g , h , i ]perylene degradation respect to NA. However, 4, 5–6 rings undergo a strong decline during the microbe-assisted phytoremediation, being the treatment which determined the highest rates of PAHs degradation. Sixteen PAH compounds, except fluorene and dibenzo[ a , h ]anthracene, were found in maize roots, whereas the naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were accumulated in the shoots, in both P and MAP treatments. However, higher PAH content in maize biomass was achieved during the MAP treatment respect to P treatment. The bioconversion and translocation factors were less than 1, indicating that phystabilization/phytodegradation processes occurred rather than phytoextraction. The microbial biomass, activity and ergosterol content were significantly boosted in the MAP treatment respect to the other treatments at 180 days. Ours results demonstrated that maize- C. laeve association was the most profitable technique for the treatment of an aged PAH-polluted soil when compared to other bioremediation approaches. Highlights Different bioremediation approaches on aged PAH-polluted soil have been tested. Best PAH degradation rates were achieved in microbial-assisted phytoremediation. An antagonistic effect was exerted by the resident soil microbiota towards Crucibulum laeve growth. Maize- C. laeve interaction promoted phytostabilization/rhizodegradation processes. Autochthonous soil microbiota was boosted during the microbial-assisted phytoremediation. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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