Application of manure containing tetracyclines slowed down the dissipation of tet resistance genes and caused changes in the composition of soil bacteria
Abstract Manure application contributes to the increased environmental burden of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). We investigated the response of tetracycline ( tet ) resistance genes and bacterial taxa to manure application amended with tetracyclines over two months. Representative tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline and doxycycline), tet resistance genes ( tet (M), tet (O), tet (W), tet (S), tet (Q) and tet (X)) and bacterial taxa in the untreated soil, +manure, and +manure+tetracyclines groups were analyzed. The abundances of all tet resistance genes in the +manure group were significantly higher than those in the untreated soil group on day 1. The abundances of all tet resistance genes (except tet (Q) and tet (X)) were significantly lower in the +manure group than those in the +manure+tetracyclines group on day 30 and 60. The dissipation rates were higher in the +manure group than those in the +manure+tetracyclines group. Disturbance of soil bacterial community composition imposed by tetracyclines was also observed. The results indicated that tetracyclines slowed down the dissipation of tet resistance genes in arable soil after manure application. Application of manure amended with tetracyclines may provide a significant selective advantage for species affiliated to the taxonomical families of Micromonosporaceae , Propionibacteriaceae , Streptomycetaceae , Nitrospiraceae and Clostridiaceae . Highlights Abundances of most tet genes significantly increased after manure application. Significantly high abundance of tet RPP genes lasted more than two months. Dissipation rates of tet genes were largely depended on the initial abundances. TCs slowed down the dissipation of tet resistance genes after manure application. TCs amendment provided a significantly selective advantage for some families. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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