Fate of potential indicator antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial community diversity in simulated manure-soil microcosms
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of nine potential indicator antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) ( sul1 , sul2 , tetB , tetM , ermB , ermF , fexA , cfr , intI1 ) and the diversity of bacterial communities in response to poultry manure applications to arable soil over a 90 day period. Quantitative real time PCR and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA gene were used to quantify and trace ARG fate. The levels of all genes dramatically decreased over time and intI1 , sul1 , sul2 and tetM always had the greatest abundance and lowest dissipation rates. This indicated that more effort should be focused on the ARG elimination from manure rather than waiting for subsequent attenuation in the environment. Our sequencing results documented dramatic changes in the microbial community structure and diversity during these experiments. In poultry manure groups, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the two dominant phyla while Acidobacteria dominated the control groups. Moreover, the relative abundance of genera Corynebacterium , Pseudomonas , Ochrobactrum , Actinomadura and Bacillus , which contained potential opportunistic pathogens, changed over time suggesting that poultry manure not only strongly influenced bacterial community composition, but also selected specific bacterial communities. This study provides a glimpse of ARG fates and bacterial community diversity in soil after the application of poultry manure. Highlights Nine potential proxy ARGs were used to overall assess the behavior of ARGs. Low dissipation rate of tetM was firstly reported in poultry manure-soil microcosms. Soil microbial community diversities were disturbed by the pure manure application. Bacterial diversity in poultry manure-soil hardly back to the background levels within 90 days. Phyla of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were selected by poultry manure application. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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