Silicon (Si): Review and future prospects on the action mechanisms in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses in plants
Abstract In the era present, due to increasing incidences of a large number of different biotic and abiotic stresses all over the world, the growth of plants (principal crops) may be restrained by these stresses. In addition to beneficial microorganisms, use of silicon (Si)-fertilizer is known as an ecologically compatible and environmentally friendly technique to stimulate plant growth, alleviate various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, and enhance the plant resistance to multiple stresses, because Si is not harmful, corrosive, and polluting to plants when presents in excess. Here, we reviewed the action mechanisms by which Si alleviates abiotic and biotic stresses in plants. The use of Si (mostly as industrial slags and rice straw) is predicted to become a sustainable strategy and an emerging trend in agriculture to enhance crop growth and alleviate abiotic and biotic stresses in the not too distant future. In this review article, the future research needs on the use of Si under the conditions of abiotic and biotic stresses are also highlighted. Highlights Si is an element which is able to enhance resistance to multiple stresses. Mechanisms of Si in alleviating abiotic and biotic stresses were highlighted. Future researches on the use of Si under environmental stresses were highlighted. Economic use and sequestration of Si in environment may be a research priority. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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