Use of Ethylenediurea (EDU) in identifying indicator cultivars of Indian clover against ambient ozone
Abstract Three clover ( Trifolium alexandrium L.) cultivars (Bundel, Wardan and JHB-146) were assessed for their responses to ambient ozone (O 3 ) with respect to growth, physiological and biochemical parameters at two rural sites (R1 and R2) using ethylenediurea (EDU). EDU solution (300ppm) was applied as soil drench, 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 10 days up to 80 DAG. The average O 3 concentrations were 52.76 and 60.86 ppb at R1 and R2 sites, respectively during the experimental period. Ambient O 3 induced visible symptoms in all the cultivars at both the sites, with more at R2 site having high ambient O 3 levels. Visible injury was observed first in non-EDU treated plants of Wardan at R2 site. Wardan also showed maximum reduction in leaf injury under EDU treatment at both the sites with more at R2. Under EDU treatment, better adaptation to ambient O 3 at initial age of observation and higher acquisition of resources at later ages of observation at both the sites led to better physiological and biochemical adaptations in Wardan. Bundel retained more biomass in shoot as is reflected with higher shoot/root ratio and thus focused more on repair and defense. Shoot/root ratio of JHB-146 did not respond to EDU treatment and thus showed insignificant variations except at initial age of observation at R1 site. This study clearly suggests that Wardan and Bundel are sensitive to ambient O 3 and can be used as bioindicator species in areas having higher O 3 levels using EDU as a research tool. Highlights The R2 site had higher ambient and peak ozone concentrations than at R1 site. More severe effects on physiological performances were observed at R2 than R1 site. The severity of ozone induced visible injury reduced upon ethylenediurea treatment, with more at R2 than R1 site. Cultivars adopted different strategies upon EDU treatment to protect from ozone stress. Wardan and Bundel being sensitive cultivars to ambient ozone can be used as bioindicator species.
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