Folates in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum): Influence of cooking and malting
Abstract Effects of processing on the contents of five folate vitamers in quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat were analysed using a trienzymatic extraction method followed by LC–MS/MS. Total folate (TF) content, corresponding to the sum of folic acid (FA), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (10-CHOTHF) expressed as folic acid equivalent, in raw quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat were 309±8.07, 228±24.2 and 153±12.4μg/100g dw, respectively, being dominantly 5-MTHF. Boiling and steaming reduced the TF in amaranth by 58% and 22%, respectively, whereas up to a 10–15% increase was observed in quinoa. Boiling and steaming did not significantly alter the TF content in buckwheat although significant changes were observed in some individual folate vitamers. Malting, on the other hand significantly increased TF content in amaranth by 21% (276±14.2μg/100g dw) and buckwheat by 27% (193±20.0μg/100g dw), whereas no significant change in quinoa was observed. Based on the EFSA recommendations, a portion of amaranth and quinoa (either boiled, steamed or malted) may contribute up to more than 25% of the dietary reference value for folates, whereas buckwheat may contribute only 14% when cooked and 19% when malted. Results demonstrate that quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat are good sources of folates, regardless of processing. Highlights Content of 3 folate vitamers in pseudocereals were analysed. Malting increased total folate content especially in amaranth and buckwheat. Processed quinoa and amaranth contributed more than 25% the folate DRV. Cooked and malted buckwheat contributed more than 15% of the folate DRV. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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