Bioactive small molecules in commercially available cereal food: Benzoxazinoids
Abstract The presence of bioactive benzoxazinoids (BXs) in mature whole grain and experimental bread products was recently shown. The aim of this study was to reveal the level of BXs in a broad range of commercial cereal products and discuss these findings in relation to ingredients and preparation processes. The concentrations of 11 BX compounds were determined by liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) in 25 supermarket-available cereal food products. The total BX content varied from below the limit of detection to >500μg/g dry matter (DM) with some degree of variation among different lots. The products W (Rugsandwich), H (GulerodsrugbrØd), L (MØrke Multikerneboller) and AA (Solsikkeklapper), which were all rich in rye-based ingredients, had a total BX concentration >300μg/g DM. Double hexose derivatives of 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) and 2-β- D -glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA-glc) were the major BXs in most products. Further studies into the health effects of BXs should be conducted, and future exploitation of these compounds seems possible. Highlights Eleven benzoxazinoids (BXs) were quantified in 25 commercial cereal food products. The total concentration of BXs varied from 500μg/g DM. Products with rye kernels, sourdough, flakes and bolted rye: ≈100–500μg BXs/g DM. Benzoxazinoids of the hydroxamic acid subgroup were the predominant compounds. Wholegrain wheat products were probably not subjected to a BX-enhancing pre-process. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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