Phenotypic evolution in marmoset and tamarin monkeys (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) and a revised genus-level classification
Abstract Marmosets and tamarins (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) constitute the most species-rich subfamily of New World monkeys and one of the most diverse phenotypically. Despite the profusion of molecular phylogenies of the group, the evolution of phenotypic characters under the rapidly-emerging consensual phylogeny of the subfamily has been little studied, resulting in taxonomic proposals that have limited support from other datasets. We examined the evolution of 18 phenotypic traits (5 continuous and 13 discrete), including pelage, skull, dentition, postcrania, life-history and vocalization variables in a robust molecular phylogeny of marmoset and tamarin monkeys, quantifying their phylogenetic signal and correlations among some of the traits. At the family level, our resulting topology supports owl monkeys (Aotinae) as sister group of Callitrichinae. The topology of the callitrichine tree was congruent with previous studies except for the position of the midas group of Saguinus tamarins, which placement as sister of the bicolor group did not receive significant statistical support in both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference analyses. Our results showed that the highest value of phylogenetic signal among continuous traits was displayed by the long call character and the lowest was exhibited in the home range, intermediate values were found in characters related to osteology and skull size. Among discrete traits, pelage and osteology had similar phylogenetic signal. Based on genetic, osteological, pelage and vocalization data, we present an updated genus-level taxonomy of Callitrichinae, which recognizes six genera in the subfamily: Callimico, Callithrix, Cebuella, Mico, Leontopithecus and Saguinus . To reflect their phenotypic distinctiveness and to avoid the use of the informal “species group”, we subdivided Saguinus in the subgenera Leontocebus, Saguinus and Tamarinus (revalidated here). Highlights First Platyrrhini phylogeny to use data from genic and non-genic nuclear regions. Vocalization and pelage traits presented strong phylogenetic signal. Phyletic position of the midas group of Saguinus is not resolved. First Callitrichinae classification using behavior, morphology, and molecular data. Proposal to divide Saguinus in the subgenera Leontocebus , Saguinus and Tamarinus. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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