Molecular phylogeny of bladderworts: A wide approach of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) species relationships based on six plastidial and nuclear DNA sequences
Abstract The carnivorous plant genus Utricularia L. (bladderwort) comprises about 240 species distributed worldwide and is traditionally classified into two subgenera ( Polypompholyx and Utricularia ) and 35 sections, based mainly on general and trap morphology. It is one out of the largest carnivorous genera, representing ca. 30% of all carnivorous plant species, and is also the most widely distributed. According to previous phylogenetic studies, most infrageneric sections are monophyletic, but there are several incongruences considering their relationships and also the dissenting position of some species as a result of a too few (mostly one or two) molecular markers analyzed. Thus, here we present a multilocus phylogeny for Utricularia species with a wide taxonomic sampling (78 species and 115 accessions) based on six plastid ( rbcL , matK , rpl20-rps12 , rps16 , trnL-F ) and nuclear DNA (ITS region) sequences. The aim is to reconstruct a well-resolved tree to propose evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses for the radiation of lineages with inferences about the divergence times of clades using a molecular clock approach. Highlights We propose a large-scale phylogeny of Utricularia based on plastidial and nuclear DNA. The combined tree supports Polypompholyx as the sister of the clade Utricularia + Bivalvaria. The Genlisea-Utricularia clade is estimated to 39 mya. The last common ancestor of Genlisea-Utricularia was possibly a South American lineage. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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