Synergistic effect of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene on inhibition of drug resistance and biofilm formation of oral bacteria
Abstract Dental caries remains the most prevalent oral infectious disease worldwide. In this study, the antibacterial and the antibiofilm activities of five essential oils (EO's): eugenol (EUG), carvacrol (CAR), thymol (TYH), p-cymene (CYM) and γ-terpinene (TER) were tested (alone or in combinaison with tetracycline) against oral bacteria. In addition, their potential roles to enhance the accumulation of ethidium bromide (EtBr) in bacterial cells were tested. Our results indicated that EO's induced a selective antimicrobial activity. A synergistic effect of EO's and tetracycline (TET) was noticed with a reduction rate ranged from 2 to 8-fold. In addition, the efflux of EtBr was inhibited with a decrease in loss of EtBr from the bacteria. On the other hand a significant anti-biofilm activities of EO's (alone or combined with antibiotics) was noticed. In conclusion the tested EO's may be considered as a potential natural source with a resistance-modifying activity and may be applied to eradicate bacterial biofilm. Highlights Dental caries remains a serious problem worldwide. EUG, CAR, TYH, CYM and TER displayed a synergitic effect with TET against oral pathogens. The tested EO's inhibit the efflux of EtBr from the cells. The combination of EO's and TET enhance the eradication of bacterial biofilm preformed on both polystyrene and tooth surface. EO's might be useful as an alternative approach to improve the clinical efficacy of antibiotic.
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