Consumption of fruit and vegetables might mitigate the adverse effects of ambient PM2.5 on lung function among adults
Abstract Background Evidence on the effects of ambient PM 2.5 on lung function is limited among adults and the effect modification by dietary fruit and vegetables remains largely unknown. Methods We interviewed 29,032 participants aged 50 years and older from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health. Annual average PM 2.5 levels were estimated for each community using satellite data. We applied multi-level linear regressions to examine the association between ambient PM 2.5 and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1-sec (FEV 1 ), FEV 1 /FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and forced expiratory flow between 25th and 75th percentiles of FVC (FEF 25–75 )). Results We found that ambient PM 2.5 was associated with lower lung functions. Each 10μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 corresponded to reductions of 123.58ml in FVC (95% CI: −185.21, −61.95), 126.64ml in FEV 1 (95% CI: −186.04, −67.23) and 178.93ml/s FEV 25–75 (95% CI: −249.20, −108.66). Lower effect estimates were observed among those with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. Conclusion Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM 2.5 might be one risk factor of reduced lung function in adults and that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables may mitigate this effect. Highlights We examined the effects of PM 2.5 on lung function among adults. PM 2.5 was associated with lower levels of FVC, FEV 1 and FEV 25-75 . Fruit and vegetables could mitigate these effects.
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