A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater
Abstract Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe VI O 4 2- ) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe VI O 4 2- ) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe VI O 4 2- ) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Highlights Ferrate(VI) has exhibited promising behavior towards the oxidation of inorganic/organic impurities. It has unique properties of strong oxidizing potential and generation of ferric coagulating species. It can degrade and/or oxidize organic and inorganic impurities (at least partially). It can also disinfect microorganisms and remove suspended/colloidal particulate materials. We reviewed on the preparation, properties, and role of ferrate to resolve multifaceted challenges.
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