Identification of the caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis as the primary entry pathway for aquareovirus
Abstract Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a member of the Aquareovirus genus in the Reoviridae family, is considered the most pathogenic aquareovirus. However, its productive viral entry pathways remain largely unclear. Using a combination of quantum dot (QD)-based live-virus tracking and biochemical assays, we found that extraction of cellular membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin strongly inhibited the internalization of GCRVs, and supplementation with cholesterol restored viral infection. In addition, the entry of the virus was restrained by genistein, an inhibitor known to block caveolar endocytosis. Subsequent real-time tracking experiments revealed that the QD-labeled GCRV particles were colocalized with caveolin-1, and transfection of cells with dominant-negative mutant (caveolin-1 Y14F) significantly reduced GCRV infection. In contrast, no effects on virus infection were detected when the clathrin-mediated endocytosis or the macropinocytosis inhibitors were used. Our results collectively suggest that aquareoviruses can use caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis as the primary entry pathway to initiate productive infection. Highlights Quantum dot-labeled GCRV is used for viral particle imaging and tracking during cell entry. Entry of GCRV is membrane cholesterol dependent. Caveolin-1 is important for GCRV infection.
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