Inactivation of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus on fresh raspberries by gaseous ozone treatment
Abstract Raspberries are vulnerable products for which industrial treatment solutions ensuring both food safety and sensory quality are not easily applicable. Raspberries have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks in recent decades. Ozone has been proven effective as a drinking water treatment against pathogenic microorganisms. Nevertheless, to date, little information is available regarding the effect of gaseous ozone on viruses in food matrices. A comparison of the effect of gaseous ozone on murine norovirus (MNV-1) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) adsorbed on fresh raspberries was performed. Infectious MNV-1 was highly inactivated (>3.3 log 10 ) by ozone (3 ppm, 1 min). The raspberry matrix seems to enhance inactivation by ozone compared to water. The same treatment was observed to have little effect on HAV even for the highest dose under the tested conditions (5 ppm, 3 min). Ozone treatment (5 ppm, 3 min) did not affect the appearance of raspberries even after three days post-treatment. No ozone effect was observed on the genomes detected by RT-PCR on both tested viruses, irrespective of the matrix or tested doses used. Gaseous ozone could therefore be a good candidate for human norovirus inactivation on raspberries but new conditions are needed for it to have significant effects on HAV inactivation. Highlights High inactivation of murine norovirus on raspberries by 3 ppm gaseous ozone after 1 min. Low inactivation of hepatitis A virus on raspberries by 5 ppm gaseous ozone after 3 min. Synergistic effect of the raspberry matrix and ozone on murine norovirus inactivation. Ozone does not affect raspberry quality after storage for three days. No decrease in RT-qPCR signal for both viruses after ozone treatment.
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