Learning explicit video attributes from mid-level representation for video captioning
Abstract Recent works on video captioning mainly learn the map from low-level visual features to language description directly without explicitly representing the high-level semantic video concepts (e.g. objects, actions in the annotated sentences). To bridge the semantic gap, in this paper, addressing it, we propose a novel video attribute representation learning algorithm for video concept understanding and utilize the learned explicit video attribute representation to improve video captioning performance. To achieve it, firstly, inspired by the success of spectrogram in audio processing, a novel mid-level video representation named “ video response map ” (VRM) is proposed, by which the frame sequence could be represented by a single image representation. Therefore, the video attributes representation learning could be converted to a well-studied multi-label image classification problem. Then in the captions prediction step, the learned video attributes feature is integrated with the single frame feature to improve previous sequence-to-sequence language generation model by adjusting the LSTM (Long-Short Term Memory) input units. The proposed video captioning framework could both handle variable frame inputs and utilize high-level semantic video attribute features. Experimental results on video captioning tasks show that the proposed method, utilizing only RGB frames as input without extra video or text training data, could achieve competitive performance with state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the extensive experimental evaluations on the UCF-101 action classification benchmark well demonstrate the representation capability of the proposed VRM. Highlights A novel and efficient mid-level video representation named VRM is presented, which could represent a sequence of frames by a single image. A novel video attributes representation learning method is presented. We achieve the superior performance to the previous sequence to sequence model without extra training data utilized.
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