Dropwise addition of cation solution: An approach for growing high-quality upconversion nanoparticles
Abstract A suitable synthetic route and the associated reaction parameters play a vital role for growing high-quality nanocrystal. A design strategy of injection was introduced with the aim of enhancing monodispersity and crystallinity of upconversion nanoparticles and making them have uniform morphology. The high-quality Yb 3+ /Er 3+ -codoped LiYF 4 , NaYF 4 , KYF 4 and NaGdF 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by dropwise addition of cation solution into precursors mixture at high-temperature in this work. The detailed synthesis parameters of the purity tetragonal LiYF 4 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ upconversion nanoparticles in injection section were studied and ascertained. Changes of the injection temperature, reaction temperature, dropwise addition speed, mole ratio of cation (Li + ) to precursors (RE(CF 3 COO) 3 ), reaction time and reactants concentration have contributed much to synthesizing high-quality LiYF 4 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ in the end. Compared with traditional thermal decomposition method, a series of properties, such as high crystallinity, less agglomeration phenomenon, uniform tetragonal bipyramidal morphology and great upconversion luminescence, could be improved by this modified method. Graphical abstract The high-quality upconversion nanoparticles were synthesized by dropwise addition of cation solution into precursors mixture at high-temperature. The detailed synthesis parameters of the purity tetragonal bipyramidal LiYF 4 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ upconversion nanoparticles in injection section were studied and ascertained. [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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