Catalytic decomposition of 2-chlorophenol using an ultrasonic-assisted Fe3O4–TiO2@MWCNT system: Influence factors, pathway and mechanism study
Abstract As a reusable sonocatalyst, magnetically separable Fe 3 O 4 –TiO 2 @MWCNT (FMT) was synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted wet impregnation method and was evaluated in the removal of 2-chlorophenol (2CP). Physical and chemical properties of the catalyst composite materials were investigated by all catalysts were systematically characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), and N 2 -physisorption. The efficiency and kinetics of 2CP removal by FMT-assisted sonocatalysis (FMT-US) was systematically investigated under various operational parameters i.e. pH, FMT and 2CP concentration, temperature and ultrasonic power. The results indicated that 0.4gL −1 FMT dosage, pH 5, temperature of 35°C as well as 50 w ultrasound power are the most favorable conditions for the degradation of the 2CP. Furthermore, both of the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were produced in the reaction, however, superoxide radicals were assumed to be the dominating reactive species for the 2CP degradation, according to the scavenging tests and electron paramagnetic resonance tests. Moreover, the FMT catalyst exhibited a high reusability and stability in the US/FMT system during the five repetitive experiments. The intermediate products were identified by GC–MS, thereby a possible degradation pathway is proposed. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and corresponding total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were 64.9% and 56.7%, respectively. Finally, toxicity tests showed that the toxicity of the solution increased during the first 5min and then decreased significantly with the progress of the oxidation. The mechanisms of ultrasound irritation enhanced FMT activation were also proposed. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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