Treatment of methylene blue containing wastewater by a cost-effective micro-scale biochar/polysulfone mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane: Performance and mechanism studies
Abstract Dye containing wastewater has increasingly become an important contamination due to operation of various industries such as textile industry. In this study, a micro-scale biochar particles/polysulfone mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane (MMM) was applied for the removal of methylene blue from water. The static and dynamic adsorption performance was investigated. We found that the MMM exhibited a high removal efficiency of methylene blue under a wide pH range of 4–10. The adsorption process on biochar and MMM obeyed the intraparticle surface diffusion model and Langmuir isotherm model. At neutral pH, the maximum adsorption capacity was 544.459 mg/g for biochar and 165.808 mg/g for MMM. Better regeneration with a desorption rate above 92% was achieved by 1-M NaCl in 90% ethanol aqueous solution. Furthermore, the MMM displayed good performance in treating methylene blue containing wastewater through a continuous filtration mode. More importantly, the MMM showed an excellent reusability for methylene blue removal; it was able to achieve 81% of the permeate yield of the fresh MMM after three regeneration cycles. Finally, the adsorption mechanism studies indicated that the removal of methylene blue was associated with electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. Highlights A cost-effective biochar/PSF mixed matrix membrane was developed. The removal of methylene blue was not very sensitive to pH and salt concentration. The adsorption process was well controlled by intraparticle surface diffusion. The MMM showed an excellent reusability for methylene blue removal by filtration. The adsorption is related to electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bonding interactions. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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